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      • sql語句大全之SELECT高級查詢

      • 2015-01-18 21:30 來源:未知

      ELECT高級查詢sql語句大全
      在實際查詢應用中,用戶所需要的數據并不全部都在一個表或視圖中,而在多個表中,這時就要使用多表查詢。多表查詢用多個表中的數據來組合,再從中獲取出所需要的數據信息。多表查詢實際上是通過各個表之間的共同列的相關性來查詢數據的,是數據庫查詢最主要的特征。多表查詢首先要在這些表中建立連接,表之間的連接就是連接查詢的結果集或結果表。而實現連接的結果是在向數據庫添加新類型的數據方面沒有限制的,具有很大的靈活性。通常總是通過連接創建一個新表,以包含不同表中的數據。如果新表有合適的域,就可以將他連接到現有的表中。

      5.2.1  基本連接

      在進行多表操作時,最簡單的連接方式就是在SELECT語句列表中引用多個表的字段,其FROM子句中用半角逗號將不同的基本表隔開。如果使用WHERE子句創建一個同等連接則能使查詢結果集更加豐富,同等連接是指第一個基表中的一個或多個列值與第二個基表中對應的一個或多個列值相等的連接。通常情況下,一般使用鍵碼列建立連接,即一個基表中的主鍵碼與第二個基表中的外鍵碼保持一致,以保持整個數據庫的參照完整性。
      用戶在進行基本連接操作時,可以遵循以下基本原則:
      l  SELECT子句列表中,每個目標列前都要加上基表名稱
      l  FROM子句應包括所有使用的基表
      l  WHERE子句應定義一個同等連接
      多表查詢中同樣可以使用WHERE子句的各個搜索條件,比如比較運算符、邏輯運算符、IN條件、BETWEEN條件、LIKE條件及IS NULL條件等,也可以規范化結果集。
      例如“網店購物系統”數據庫中“商品信息”表和“訂單信息”表,都包含了“商品編號”列,根據該列在WHERE子句中建立同等連接,查詢語句如下所示。
      USE 網店購物系統
      SELECT 商品信息.商品名稱,商品信息.商品價格,訂單信息.交易數量,訂單信息.交易時間
      FROM 商品信息,訂單信息
      WHERE 商品信息.商品編號 = 訂單信息.商品編號
      上面語句在SELECT語句中各個查詢列前都指定了其所在的表,從而確定每個列的來源并限定列名。WHERE子句中創建了一個同等連接,即通過兩表的商品編號,它們都是所在表的主鍵。執行語句后,得到的結果如圖5-22所示。

      圖5-22  使用WHERE子句建立同等連接
      使用同等連接不僅僅可以連接兩個列,如果表中結構允許,用戶可以在WHERE子句中連接多個表,可以使用下面這樣的語句:
      USE 網店購物系統
      SELECT 商品信息.商品名稱,商品信息.商品價格,訂單信息.交易數量,注冊會員.會用地址
      FROM 商品信息,訂單信息,注冊會員
      WHERE 商品信息.商品編號 = 訂單信息.商品編號
      AND 訂單信息.會員編號 = 注冊會員.會員編號
      AND 注冊會員.會員地址 LIKE '北京%'
      上面語句在WHERE子句中使用AND連接了兩個同等連接:第一個連接是“商品信息”表中商品編號與“訂單信息”表中商品編號,第二個連接是“訂單信息”表中會員編號與“注冊會員”表中的會員編號;最后又使用AND連接了另外一個限定條件。執行上面語句后,得到的結果如圖5-23所示。

      圖5-23  使用多個同等連接
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