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      • sql語句大全之使用TRUNCATE TABLE語句

      • 2015-01-25 00:48 來源:未知

      使用TRUNCATE TABLE語句

      TRUNCATE TABLE語句提供了一種刪除表中所有記錄的快速方法。因為TRUNCATE TABLE語句不記錄日志,只記錄整個數據頁的釋放操作,而DELETE語句對每一行修改都記錄日志,所以使用TRUNCATE TABLE語句進行刪除操作總是比沒有指定條件的DELETE語句效率高。TRUNCATE TABLE立即釋放了表中數據及索引所占用的全部空間,同時也釋放了分配給所有索引的空間。其語法格式如下:
      TRUNCATE TABLE [ [database.] owner.] table_name
      與DELETE語句相比,TRUNCATE TABLE具有以下優點:
      l   所用的事務日志空間較少  DELETE語句每次刪除一行,并在事務日志中為所刪除的每行記錄一個項。TRUNCATE TABLE通過釋放用于存儲表數據的數據頁來刪除數據,并且在事務日志中只記錄頁釋放。
      l   使用的鎖通常較少  當使用行鎖執行DELETE語句時,將會鎖定表中各行以便刪除。TRUNCATE TABLE始終鎖定表和頁,而不是鎖定各行。
      l   表中將毫無例外地不留下任何頁  執行DELETE語句后,表仍會包含空頁。例如,必須至少使用一個排他(LCK_M_X)表鎖,才能釋放堆中的空表。如果執行刪除操作時沒有使用表鎖,表(堆)中將包含許多空頁。對于索引,刪除操作會留下一些空頁,盡管如此,不過這些頁會通過后臺清除進程迅速釋放。
      那么可不可以用TRUNCATE TABLE代替不帶WHERE子句的DELETE語句呢?在以下幾種情況是不行的:
      l   在需要保留標識的情況下不能用TRUNCATE TABLE,因為TRUNCATE TABLE會重置標識。
      l   在需要使用觸發器的情況下不能使用TRUNCATE TABLE,因為它不會激發觸發器。
      l   對于由FOREIGN KEY約束引用的表(即主鍵所在的表,不是外鍵所在的表)不能使用TRUNCATE TABLE.
      l   對于參與了索引視圖的表不能使用TRUNCATE TABLE,注意指的是索引視圖,并非普通視圖。
      那么用戶需要具有什么權限才可以使用TRUNCATE TABLE呢?若要使用TRUNCATE TABLE語句,必須是表的所有者,具有DBA權限或表的ALTER權限。對于基表,TRUNCATE TABLE語句需要有表的排他訪問權限,因為操作是原子操作(要么刪除所有行,要么不刪除任何行)。這意味著所有以前打開的游標和引用要截斷的表的游標都必須關閉,并且必須發出COMMIT或ROLLBACK命令釋放對表的引用。對于臨時表,每個用戶都有自己的數據副本,不需要排他訪問。
      下面結合一個簡單的實例來說明如何使用TRUNCATE TABLE語句。比如需要刪除商品信息表中的所有數據,可以使用如下語句:
      TRUNCATE TABLE 商品信息
      由于TRUNCATE TABLE操作是不進行日志記錄的,所以建議在TRUNCATE TABLE語句之前使用BACKUP DATABASE語句來對數據庫做備份。

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