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      • sql語句大全之使用GROUP BY子句

      • 2015-01-18 21:27 來源:未知

      使用GROUP BY子句sql語句大全
      數據庫具有基于表的特定列對數據進行分析的能力。可以使用GROUP子句對某一列數據的值進行分組,分組可以使同組的元組集中在一起,這也使數據能夠分組統計。換句話說,就是GROUP BY子句用于歸納信息類型,以匯總相關數據。

      GROUP BY子句的語法格式為:
      GROUP BY group_by_expression [WITH ROLLUP|CUBE]
      其中,group_by_expression表示分組所依據的列,ROLLUP表示只返回第一個分組條件指定的列的統計行,若改變列的順序就會使返回的結果行數據發生變化。CUBE是ROLLUP的擴展,表示除了返回由GROUP BY子句指定的列外,還返回按組統計的行。GROUP BY子句通常與統計函數聯合使用,如COUNT、SUM等。在表5-4中列出了幾個常用的統計函數及功能。
       
      表5-4  常用統計函數
      函數名 功能
      COUNT 求組中項數,返回整數
      SUM 求和,返回表達式中所有值的和
      AVG 求均值,返回表達式中所有值得平均值
      MAX 求最大值,返回表達式中所有值得最大值
      MIN 求最小值,返回表達式中所有值的最小值
      ABS 求絕對值,返回數值表達式的絕對值
      ASCII 求ASCII碼,返回字符型數據的ASCII
      RAND 產生隨機數,返回一個位于0和1之間的隨機數
       
      在使用GROUP BY子句時,將GROUP BY子句中的列稱為分割列或分組列,而且必須保證SELECT語句中的列是可計算的值或者在GROUP BY列表中。
      例如,要在【工資管理系統】數據庫的【員工信息】表中按照【所任職位】查詢出對應職位上的統計人數,具體SELECT語句如下所示:
      USE 工資管理系統
      SELECT 所任職位,COUNT(員工編號) AS 職位上的人數 FROM 員工信息 GROUP BY 所任職位
      執行上述語句后,將對【員工信息】表中【所任職位】列進行分組,并且對于每一組使用COUNT()函數統計出各職位上的人數,語句的執行結果如圖5-20所示。

      圖5-20  使用GROUP BY子句進行分組統計
       
      GROUP BY子句通常用于對某個子集或其中的一組數據,而不是對整個數據集中的數據進行合計運算。在SELECT語句中指定的列必須是GROUP BY子句中的列名,或者被聚合所使用的列,并且在GROUP BY子句中必須使用列的名稱、而不能使用AS子句中指定的列的別名。

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