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      • java教程之關于 java.util.concurrent 您不知道的 5 件事

      • 2015-01-24 09:34 來源:未知

      關于 java.util.concurrent 您不知道的 5 件事,第 1 部分(相關java教程)
      Concurrent Collections 是 Java™ 5 的巨大附加產品,但是在關于注釋和泛型的爭執中很多 Java 開發人員忽視了它們。此外(或者更老實地說),許多開發人員避免使用這個數據包,因為他們認為它一定很復雜,就像它所要解決的問題一樣。

      事實上,java.util.concurrent 包含許多類,能夠有效解決普通的并發問題,無需復雜工序。閱讀本文,了解 java.util.concurrent 類,比如 CopyOnWriteArrayList 和 BlockingQueue 如何幫助您解決多線程編程的棘手問題。

      1、  TimeUnit

      盡管本質上 不是 Collections 類,但 java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit 枚舉讓代碼更易讀懂。使用 TimeUnit 將使用您的方法或 API 的開發人員從毫秒的 “暴政” 中解放出來。
      TimeUnit 包括所有時間單位,從 MILLISECONDS 和 MICROSECONDS 到 DAYS 和 HOURS,這就意味著它能夠處理一個開發人員所需的幾乎所有的時間范圍類型。同時,因為在列舉上聲明了轉換方法,在時間加快時,將 HOURS 轉換回 MILLISECONDS 甚至變得更容易。

      2、  CopyOnWriteArrayList

      創建數組的全新副本是過于昂貴的操作,無論是從時間上,還是從內存開銷上,因此在通常使用中很少考慮;開發人員往往求助于使用同步的 ArrayList。然而,這也是一個成本較高的選擇,因為每當您跨集合內容進行迭代時,您就不得不同步所有操作,包括讀和寫,以此保證一致性。
      這又讓成本結構回到這樣一個場景:需多讀者都在讀取 ArrayList,但是幾乎沒人會去修改它。
      CopyOnWriteArrayList 是個巧妙的小寶貝,能解決這一問題。它的 Javadoc 將 CopyOnWriteArrayList 定義為一個 “ArrayList 的線程安全變體,在這個變體中所有易變操作(添加,設置等)可以通過復制全新的數組來實現”。
      集合從內部將它的內容復制到一個沒有修改的新數組,這樣讀者訪問數組內容時就不會產生同步成本(因為他們從來不是在易變數據上操作)。
      本質上講,CopyOnWriteArrayList 很適合處理 ArrayList 經常讓我們失敗的這種場景:讀取頻繁,但很少有寫操作的集合,例如 JavaBean 事件的 Listeners。

      3、  BlockingQueue

      BlockingQueue 接口表示它是一個 Queue,意思是它的項以先入先出(FIFO)順序存儲。在特定順序插入的項以相同的順序檢索 — 但是需要附加保證,從空隊列檢索一個項的任何嘗試都會阻塞調用線程,直到這個項準備好被檢索。同理,想要將一個項插入到滿隊列的嘗試也會導致阻塞調用線程,直到隊列的存儲空間可用。
      BlockingQueue 干凈利落地解決了如何將一個線程收集的項“傳遞”給另一線程用于處理的問題,無需考慮同步問題。Java Tutorial 的 Guarded Blocks 試用版就是一個很好的例子。它構建一個單插槽綁定的緩存,當新的項可用,而且插槽也準備好接受新的項時,使用手動同步和 wait()/notifyAll() 在線程之間發信。(詳見 Guarded Blocks 實現。)
      盡管 Guarded Blocks 教程中的代碼有效,但是它耗時久,混亂,而且也并非完全直觀。退回到 Java 平臺較早的時候,沒錯,Java 開發人員不得不糾纏于這種代碼;但現在是 2010 年 — 情況難道沒有改善?
      清單 1 顯示了 Guarded Blocks 代碼的重寫版,其中我使用了一個 ArrayBlockingQueue,而不是手寫的 Drop。
      清單 1. BlockingQueue
      import java.util.*;
      import java.util.concurrent.*;
       
      class Producer
          implements Runnable
      {
          private BlockingQueue<String> drop;
          List<String> messages = Arrays.asList(
              "Mares eat oats",
              "Does eat oats",
              "Little lambs eat ivy",
              "Wouldn't you eat ivy too?");
              
          public Producer(BlockingQueue<String> d) { this.drop = d; }
          
          public void run()
          {
              try
              {
                  for (String s : messages)
                      drop.put(s);
                  drop.put("DONE");
              }
              catch (InterruptedException intEx)
              {
                  System.out.println("Interrupted! " + 
                      "Last one out, turn out the lights!");
              }
          }    
      }
       
      class Consumer
          implements Runnable
      {
          private BlockingQueue<String> drop;
          public Consumer(BlockingQueue<String> d) { this.drop = d; }
          
          public void run()
          {
              try
              {
                  String msg = null;
                  while (!((msg = drop.take()).equals("DONE")))
                      System.out.println(msg);
              }
              catch (InterruptedException intEx)
              {
                  System.out.println("Interrupted! " + 
                      "Last one out, turn out the lights!");
              }
          }
      }
       
      public class ABQApp
      {
          public static void main(String[] args)
          {
              BlockingQueue<String> drop = new ArrayBlockingQueue(1, true);
              (new Thread(new Producer(drop))).start();
              (new Thread(new Consumer(drop))).start();
          }
      }
      ArrayBlockingQueue 還體現了“公平” — 意思是它為讀取器和編寫器提供線程先入先出訪問。這種替代方法是一個更有效,但又冒窮盡部分線程風險的政策。(即,允許一些讀取器在其他讀取器鎖定時運行效率更高,但是您可能會有讀取器線程的流持續不斷的風險,導致編寫器無法進行工作。)
      注意 Bug
      順便說一句,如果您注意到 Guarded Blocks 包含一個重大 bug,那么您是對的 — 如果開發人員在 main() 中的 Drop 實例上同步,會出現什么情況呢?
      BlockingQueue 還支持接收時間參數的方法,時間參數表明線程在返回信號故障以插入或者檢索有關項之前需要阻塞的時間。這么做會避免非綁定的等待,這對一個生產系統是致命的,因為一個非綁定的等待會很容易導致需要重啟的系統掛起。

      4、  ConcurrentMap

      Map 有一個微妙的并發 bug,這個 bug 將許多不知情的 Java 開發人員引入歧途。ConcurrentMap 是最容易的解決方案。
      當一個 Map 被從多個線程訪問時,通常使用 containsKey() 或者 get() 來查看給定鍵是否在存儲鍵/值對之前出現。但是即使有一個同步的 Map,線程還是可以在這個過程中潛入,然后奪取對 Map 的控制權。問題是,在對 put() 的調用中,鎖在 get() 開始時獲取,然后在可以再次獲取鎖之前釋放。它的結果是個競爭條件:這是兩個線程之間的競爭,結果也會因誰先運行而不同。
      如果兩個線程幾乎同時調用一個方法,兩者都會進行測試,調用 put,在處理中丟失第一線程的值。幸運的是,ConcurrentMap 接口支持許多附加方法,它們設計用于在一個鎖下進行兩個任務:putIfAbsent(),例如,首先進行測試,然后僅當鍵沒有存儲在 Map 中時進行 put。

      5、  SynchronousQueues

      根據 Javadoc,SynchronousQueue 是個有趣的東西:
      這是一個阻塞隊列,其中,每個插入操作必須等待另一個線程的對應移除操作,反之亦然。一個同步隊列不具有任何內部容量,甚至不具有 1 的容量。
      本質上講,SynchronousQueue 是之前提過的 BlockingQueue 的又一實現。它給我們提供了在線程之間交換單一元素的極輕量級方法,使用 ArrayBlockingQueue 使用的阻塞語義。在清單 2 中,我重寫了 清單 1 的代碼,使用 SynchronousQueue 替代 ArrayBlockingQueue:
      清單 2. SynchronousQueue
      import java.util.*;
      import java.util.concurrent.*;
       
      class Producer
          implements Runnable
      {
          private BlockingQueue<String> drop;
          List<String> messages = Arrays.asList(
              "Mares eat oats",
              "Does eat oats",
              "Little lambs eat ivy",
              "Wouldn't you eat ivy too?");
              
          public Producer(BlockingQueue<String> d) { this.drop = d; }
          
          public void run()
          {
              try
              {
                  for (String s : messages)
                      drop.put(s);
                  drop.put("DONE");
              }
              catch (InterruptedException intEx)
              {
                  System.out.println("Interrupted! " + 
                      "Last one out, turn out the lights!");
              }
          }    
      }
       
      class Consumer
          implements Runnable
      {
          private BlockingQueue<String> drop;
          public Consumer(BlockingQueue<String> d) { this.drop = d; }
          
          public void run()
          {
              try
              {
                  String msg = null;
                  while (!((msg = drop.take()).equals("DONE")))
                      System.out.println(msg);
              }
              catch (InterruptedException intEx)
              {
                  System.out.println("Interrupted! " + 
                      "Last one out, turn out the lights!");
              }
          }
      }
       
      public class SynQApp
      {
          public static void main(String[] args)
          {
              BlockingQueue<String> drop = new SynchronousQueue<String>();
              (new Thread(new Producer(drop))).start();
              (new Thread(new Consumer(drop))).start();
          }
      }
      實現代碼看起來幾乎相同,但是應用程序有額外獲益:SynchronousQueue 允許在隊列進行一個插入,只要有一個線程等著使用它。
      在實踐中,SynchronousQueue 類似于 Ada 和 CSP 等語言中可用的 “會合通道”。這些通道有時在其他環境中也稱為 “連接”,這樣的環境包括 .NET (見 參考資料)。
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