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      • access教程之數據庫的設計之概念及準則

      • 2015-08-02 22:25 來源:未知
      概念及準則
       
      下面介紹數據庫設計的概念,及由此而產生的數據庫設計準則。
      Access 2003數據庫是所有相關對象的集合,包括表、查詢、窗體、報表、宏、模塊、Web頁等。每一個對象都是數據庫的一個組成部分,其中,表是數據庫的基礎,它記錄數據庫中的全部數據內容。而其他對象只是Access提供的用于對數據庫進行維護的工具而已。正因為如此,設計一個數據庫的關鍵,就集中在建立數據庫中的基本表上。
      關系型數據庫不管設計得好壞,都可以存取數據,但是不同的數據庫在存取數據的效率上有很大的差別。為了更好的設計數據庫中的表,下面提供幾條一般規則供大家討論。
      ⑴ 字段唯一性。即表中的每個字段只能含有惟一類型的數據信息。在同一字段內不能存放兩類信息。
      ⑵ 記錄唯一性。即表中沒有完全一樣的兩個記錄。在同一個表中保留相同的兩具記錄是沒有意義的。要保證記錄的唯一性,就必須建立主關鍵字。
      ⑶ 功能相關性。即在數據庫中,任意一個數據表都應該有一個主關鍵字段,該字段與表中記錄的各實體相對應。這一規則是針對表而言的,它一方面要求表中不能包含該表無關的信息,另一方面要求表中的字段信息要能完整地描述某一記錄。
      ⑷ 字段無關性。即在不影響其他字段的情況下,必須能夠對任意字段進行修改(非主關鍵字段)。所有非主關鍵字段都依賴于主關鍵字,這一規則說明了非主關鍵字段之間的關鍵是相互獨立的。
      這些內容涉及到關系模型與規范化問題,這里不作理論分析,我們將在數據庫原理中學習和討論。
       
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