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      VB.net 2010 視頻教程 VB.net 2010 視頻教程 VB.net 2010 視頻教程
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      首頁 > 編程開發 > C#編程 >
      • C#教程之C# 觀察者模式

      • 2019-01-21 20:14 來源:未知

      一、定義

        觀察者模式(Observer Pattern)是設計模式中行為模式的一種,它解決了上述具有一對多依賴關系的對象的重用問題。此模式的參與者分為兩大類,一類是被觀察的目標,另一類是觀察該目標的觀察者們。正因為該模式是基于“一對多”的關系,所以該模式一般是應用于由一個目標對象和N個觀察者對象組成(當然也可以擴展為有多個目標對象,但我們現在只討論前者)的場合。當目標對象的狀態發生改變或做出某種行為時,正在觀察該目標對象的觀察者們將自動地、連鎖地作出相應的響應行為。

       

      二、測試事例

        貓來了,老鼠走了。

        其中貓為被觀察的目標,老鼠為觀察者,當貓來了行為發生時,老鼠們會做出逃跑的響應行為。

      1. 貓和老鼠封裝類

      復制代碼
       1 class Cat
       2 {
       3     private string name;
       4     private string color;
       5 
       6     public Cat(string name, string color)
       7     {
       8         this.name = name;
       9         this.color = color;
      10     }
      11 
      12     /// <summary>
      13     /// 貓進屋(貓的狀態發生改變)
      14     /// </summary>
      15     public void CatComing()
      16     {
      17         Console.WriteLine("貓來了");
      18 
      19         if (catCome != null)
      20             catCome();
      21     }
      22     public Action catCome;              // 委托
      23 }
      復制代碼

       

      復制代碼
       1 class Mouse
       2     {
       3         private string name;
       4         private string color;
       5 
       6         public Mouse(string name, string color)
       7         {
       8             this.name = name;
       9             this.color = color;
      10         }
      11 
      12         /// <summary>
      13         /// 逃跑功能
      14         /// </summary>
      15         public void RunAway()
      16         {
      17             Console.WriteLine(color + "的老鼠" + name + "跑了");
      18         }
      19     }
      復制代碼

       

       

      2. 測試代碼

      復制代碼
       1 class Program
       2 {
       3     static void Main(string[] args)
       4     {
       5           
       6 
       7         Cat cat = new Cat("加菲貓", "黃色");
       8         Mouse mouse1=new Mouse("米奇","黑色");
       9         Mouse mouse2 = new Mouse("唐老鴨", "紅色");
      10 
      11         cat.catCome += mouse1.RunAway;      // 多播委托
      12         cat.catCome += mouse2.RunAway;
      13 
      14         cat.CatComing();            // 貓的狀態發生變化
      15 
      16         //多一只老鼠,不應該修改貓的類。 
      17         Console.ReadKey();
      18         
      19     }
      20 }
      復制代碼

       

      3. 運行截圖 

       

       

      三、適用場景

      1. 當對一個對象的改變需要同時改變其他對象,而又不知道具體有多少對象有待改變的情況下。
      2. 當一個對象必須通知其他對象,而又不能假定其他對象是誰的情況下。
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